The discovery was made near the Kirkpatrick Macmillan footbridge at the bottom of Troqueer just before 2 pm today, with Police Scotland sealing off the bridge and the footpath leading from Castledykes to Kingholm Quay.
Police, Scottish Fire and Rescue and a Coastguard team from Annan all attended the scene.
A spokesman for Police Scotland said: “Around 2 pm on Tuesday 25 July 2017, a body was recovered from the River Nith near to East Riverside Drive in Dumfries.
“Enquiries are at an early stage.”
The scene remained taped off yesterday afternoon as police enquiries continued.