A major investigation had been launched after a 25-year-old man told police he had suffered a serious sexual assault in the early hours of Sunday in Brooms Road.
A Police Scotland statement said: “Following a thorough investigation into a serious sexual assault that was alleged to have taken place in Brooms Road, Dumfries in the early hours of Sunday April 9 2017 we have now completed our enquiries.
“Specialist investigating officers had been reviewing CCTV and taking statements from witnesses and we are now satisfied no criminality has taken place.
“We are no longer looking for a male suspect who was alleged to have attacked the victim.”
It had been reported the man was walking on Broom Road near to its junction with Millburn Avenue after an evening spent socialising with friends in the town centre.
He was said to have been approached by a stranger who produced a weapon and forced the victim to a nearby grassy area — before raping him.
A description was given of the attacker — a man about 6ft 1 inch, of stocky, muscular build with a possible foreign accent, and wearing dark clothing and a dark hooded top.
Detective Inspector Bryan Lee said: “I would like to thank the public for their excellent response to our appeals for information and reassure them they can go about their normal routine.
“Our additional patrols in the area will now also return to normal levels.”