Operation Wolfberry is described as an ongoing operation carried out by Police Scotland, and on Friday officers searched properties in Dumfries and Galloway, Lanarkshire, Tayside and Fife.
A Police Scotland spokesman said: “As part of an ongoing operation into human trafficking, Police Scotland officers attended at a number of addresses across Scotland on Friday May 15 2015 with partner organisations and local policing divisions.”
Arrests are understood to have been made in the Fife region.
The spokesman added: “A 44-year-old man and a 35-year-old woman have been arrested and charged with human trafficking and related offences.”
Both were due to appear at Kirkcaldy Sheriff Court on Monday.
While Operation Wolfberry remains ongoing, the spokesman said: “The case is now active, and it would therefore be inappropriate to comment further.”